The objective of this workshop is to provide a pedagogical overview of the theory of electric dipole moments (EDMs) of leptons, nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The Project X accelerator will enable measurements of muon, proton, neutron, and several atomic EDMs. Some aspects of the theory, especially the more complicated systems, are not especially well-known in the HEP community, bringing in aspects of hadronic, nuclear and atomic physics. At the same time, the motivation for these measurements lies in fundamental physics, as a nonzero EDM is a clear sign of CP violation. We shall also explore connections to flavor physics, Higgs physics, and other complementary aspects of collider physics.