# New Technologies for Discovery IV: The 2018 CPAD Instrumentation Frontier Workshop

US/Eastern
Rhode Island Convention Center

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
Description
Organized by the Coordinating Panel for Advanced Detectors of the Division of Particles and Fields of the American Physical Society

This workshop will explore and evaluate Detector R&D opportunities, needs, and the challenges ahead for High Energy Physics in the US within the context of the P5 plan.

New ideas are particularly welcome!
Support
• Sunday, December 9
• 7:30 AM
Breakfast East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 1
Registration East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Plenary I
Convener: Prof. Ulrich Heintz (Brown University)
• 2
Welcome
Speaker: Jill Pipher (Brown University)
• 3
Speakers: Ian Shipsey (Oxford), Marcel Demarteau (Argonne National Laboratory)
• 4
Generic Next Generation R&D
Speaker: Dr Petra Merkel (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)
• 5
Dark Matter
Speaker: Prof. Scott Hertel (UMass Amherst)
• 10:00 AM
Coffee Break East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Plenary II
Convener: Dr Zhehui Wang (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
• 6
Neutrino Physics Overview
Speaker: Prof. Sowjanya Gollapinni (University of Tennessee, Knoxville)
• 7
Pixel R&D for Neutrino Detectors
Speaker: Dr Dan Dwyer (LBNL)
• 8
Quantum Sensing
Speaker: Carlton Caves (University of New Mexico)
• 9
Early & Late Universe
Speaker: Aritoki Suzuki (LBL)
• 12:30 PM
Lunch East Prefunction, Rotunda

### East Prefunction, Rotunda

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Parallel Session: Noble Element Detectors 552A

### 552A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 10
Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detector Technologies for Energy, Intensity and Cosmic Frontiers: an overview of the CERN-RD51 Collaboration
Driven by the availability of modern photolithographic techniques, Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) have been introduced in the 20th century by pioneer developments: Microstrip Gas Chambers (MSGC), Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM), Micro-mesh gaseous structure (Micromegas), followed by the thick-GEM (THGEM), resistive GEM (RETGEM), Micro-Pixel Gas Chamber (μ-PIC), and an integrated readout of gaseous detectors using solid-state pixel chips (InGrid). Nowadays, intensive R&D activities in the field of MPGDs and their diversified applications are pursued by the large CERN-RD51 collaboration. The aims are to facilitate the development of advanced gas-avalanche detector concepts and technologies and associated electronic-readout systems, for applications in basic and applied research. MPGD systems now offer robustness, very high rate operation, high precision spatial resolution (sub 100-micron), and protection against discharges. MPGDs became important instruments in current particle-physics experiments and are in development and design stages for future ones. They are significant components of the upgrade plans for ATLAS, CMS, and ALICE at the LHC, exemplifying the beneficial transfer of detector technologies to industry. Beyond their design for experiments at future facilities (e.g. FAIR, EIC, ILC, FCC), MPGDs are considered for rare-event searches, e.g. dark matter, double beta decay and neutrino scattering experiments. Detectors sensitive to x-rays, neutrons and light are finding applications in other diverse areas as material sciences, hadron therapy systems, homeland security etc. Since its early stages, the RD51 collaboration has paid attention to building a proper environment for performing high-quality advanced R&D on MPGDs; it continues to advance the MPGD domain with scientific, technological, and educational initiatives. It is a worldwide open scientific and technological forum on MPGDs, and RD51 has invested resources during ten years in forming expertise, organizing common infrastructure and developing common research tools. Originally created for a five-year term in 2008, RD51 was recently prolonged for a third consecutive five years term beyond 2018 (arXiv: 1806.09955). This talk will highlight recent MPGD technology advances, review RD51 collaboration activities, and address numerous MPGD applications at the Energy, Intensity and Cosmic Frontiers.
Speaker: Dr Maxim Titov (CEA Saclay)
• 11
NEXt
Speaker: Dr Justo Martín-Albo (Harvard University)
• 12
Dual-Phase LArTPC R&D for neutrino physics
The Dual-Phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LArTPC) aims to open new windows of opportunity in the study of neutrinos. Dual-phase LArTPCs are one of the far detector technology options foreseen for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) at Fermilab. Dual Phase (DP) refers to the extraction of ionization electrons at the interface between liquid and gaseous argon and their amplification and collection in the gas phase. Recently, there are lots of ongoing R&D activities on Dual-Phase degin, namely 3x1x1 m3 pilot detector and protoDUNE-DP LArTPC detector at CERN. protoDUNE-DP will be operating at the CERN neutrino platform. It not only serves as the engineering prototype of the FD, but will also demonstrate the concept of a very large dual-phase LAr TPC and calibrate it with charged particle test beam. We will briefly discuss design, installation and status of the protoDUNE Dual-Phase detector at CERN.
Speaker: Dr Animesh Chatterjee (University of Texas at Arlington)
• 13
Recent results from R&D for the nEXO experiment
nEXO is a next-generation experiment to search for neutrinoless double beta decay ($0\nu\beta\beta$). The nEXO detector will consist of a homogeneous time projection chamber (TPC) filled with 5 tonnes of liquid xenon enriched to 90% $^{136}$Xe. nEXO is projected to reach a $0\nu\beta\beta$ half life sensitivity of $\sim$$10^{28}$ years, which will provide a search for lepton number violating processes with more than 2 orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than existing experiments. To reach these goals, the nEXO collaboration is engaged in R&D to develop novel charge and light sensors, cold in-LXe electronics and high-bandwidth readouts with ultra-low radioactivity, and optimized high-voltage designs for a large TPC. Recent results from this R&D demonstrating key requirements for the nEXO design will be discussed.
Speaker: Prof. David Moore (Yale University)
• Parallel Session: Photodetectors 553A

### 553A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 14
Scaled Superconducting Nanowire Detectors in Photonic Circuits
I will report on our recent progresses on developing scaled superconducting single photon detectors embedded in integrated photonic circuits. Yale’s waveguide SSPD design utilizes the concept of evanescent complete absorption of light by a nanowire fabricated atop a waveguide (Fig.1). It overcomes the tradeoff between detection efficiency and speed in conventional meander SSPD designs [1,2]. These traveling wave micro-SSPDs can absorb 99% of the incoming light within 10m-long optical waveguide and have an order of magnitude less kinetic inductance than conventional meander wire detectors. Therefore, they simultaneously achieve high detection efficiency and high speed, and exhibit excellent detection performance: on-chip quantum efficiency, timing jitter, dark count, intrinsic bandwidth and high scalability. Our circuit-detector approach is fully compatible with scalable, high-yield semiconductor microfabrication processes. We further show that a large grid of individually addressable micro-SSPD can be fully integrated on a single chip, with each detector element integrated into independent waveguide circuit with custom functionality.[3,4] Such a detector array can be utilized for demonstrating quantum interference of single photons on a silicon photonic chip.[5] Further exploitation of the hybrid photonic and superconducting detector circuits also lead to the realization of on-chip single photon spectrometer with high channel capacity.
Speaker: Prof. Hong Tang (Yale University)
• 15
CMOS single photon detector
Speakers: Dakota Starkey (Dartmouth College), Eric Fossum (Dartmouth College)
• 16
Novel quantum and bio-inspired designs for photodetection
Photodetection plays a key role in basic science and technology, with exquisite performance having been achieved down to the single photon level. Further improvements in photodetectors would open new possibilities across a broad range of scientific disciplines, and enable new types of applications. However, it is still unclear what is possible in terms of ultimate performance, and what properties are needed for a photodetector to achieve such performance. In this presentation, I will discuss recent theoretical and experimental work to address this question. On the theoretical front, we present a new general framework to establish the fundamental properties of photodetectors from a fully quantum perspective, and show what basic features are needed to achieve high performance. Novel photodetector designs emerge from these considerations, and we present initial experiments to test these new designs. Interestingly, some of the new photodetector features are similar to those found in the human visual system.
Speaker: Dr Francois Leonard (Sandia National Laboratories)
• 17
Developing Charged Particle Time-of-Flight at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility Using Commercially Produced LAPPD modules
The rst commercially-produced LAPPDTM photodetectors[1] are now available from Incom, Inc[2]. An informal collaboration of Fermilab, Incom, and the University of Chicago (UofC) has been developing plans to optimize the timing resolution and to characterize the performance and life-time of several of the newly available Incom modules at the Fermilab Testbeam Facility . These modules will contain the entire beam prole. If successful this could lead to an upgrade of the Fermilab Testbeam Facility Time of Flightsystem to four stations of LAPPDs for particle ID. The goals are thus two-fold: 1) a substantial upgrade to particle identication at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility; and 2) a validation of a new commercially-available technology for future detectors at the Energy and Luminosity Frontiers. System designs for one, two, and four LAPPD modules and expected TOF performance will be discussed.
Speaker: Prof. Henry Frisch (University of Chicago)
• Parallel Session: Superconducting Detectors
Conveners: Dr John Mates (University of Colorado, Boulder), Dr Peter Barry (ANL), Dr Sherry Cho (SLAC)
• 18
Searching for 10meV-1GeV Dark Matter with Athermal Phonon Detectors
Speaker: Dr matt pyle (University of California Berkeley)
• 19
DM Radio: An Optimized Search for Axion and Hidden-Photon Dark Matter
Speaker: Mr Saptarshi Chaudhuri (Stanford University Department of Physics)
• 20
A scalable and experimentally verifiable photonic apparatus for dark photon detection with superconducting nanowire devices
Speaker: Jeffrey Chiles (NIST)
• 21
Development of Cryogenic Light Detectors for CUPID using an Ir/Pt transition edge sensor
• 3:30 PM
Coffee Break East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Parallel Session: Computing & Machine Learning
Conveners: Dr Oliver Gutsche (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), Sergei Gleyzer (University of Florida), Taritree Wongjirad (MIT)
• 22
QUBO for Track Reconstruction on D-Wave
D-Wave Systems Quantum Annealer (QA) finds the ground state of a Hamiltonian expressed as: $O(a;b;q)=\sum_{i=1}^N{a_i q_i} +\sum_{i}^N\sum_{j < i}^N{b_{ij} q_i q_j}$ This Quantum Machine Instruction (QMI) is equivalent to a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) and can be transformed easily into an Ising model or a Hopfield network. Following Stimpfl-Abele [“Fast track finding with neural network”](https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001046559190048P), we expressed the problem of classifying track seeds (doublets and triplets) as a QUBO, where the weights depend on physical properties such as the curvature, 3D orientation, and length. We generated QUBOs that encode the pattern recognition problem at the LHC using the [TrackML dataset](https://www.kaggle.com/c/trackml-particle-identification) and solved them using [qbsolv](https://www.dwavesys.com/sites/default/files/partitioning_QUBOs_for_quantum_acceleration-2.pdf) and the [D-Wave Leap Cloud Service](https://cloud.dwavesys.com/leap/). Those early experiments achieved a performance in terms of purity, efficiency, and TrackML score that exceeds 95%. Our goal is to develop a strategy appropriate for HL-LHC track densities by using techniques including improved seeding algorithms and geographic partitioning. We also plan to refine our model in order to reduce execution time and to boost performance.
Speaker: Ms Lucy Linder (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab)
• 23
Identification of Double-Beta Decay Events in a Large Liquid Scintillator Detector
I will discuss application of machine learning techniques for identification of a two-track single-vertex event topology of double-beta decay events in a liquid scintillator detector. Event topologies of background events differ in number of tracks and/or in number of verticies and, in some cases, by relative timing of secondary particles. These topological differences between signal and backgrounds are "encoded" in an ensemble of scintillation and Cherenkov photons created in each event. Using a simulation of a 6.5-meters radius liquid scintillator detector I will show performance of various event classification techniques that utilize differences in timing and spatial distributions of detected photo-electrons. Continuing development in photo-detection techniques suggests that increasingly precise characterization of individual photons may be possible at future experiments. I will discuss what are possible implications for event reconstruction techniques that come along with precision photon characterization.
Speaker: Andrey Elagin (University of Chicago)
• 24
End-to-end particle and event identification for regular and boosted topologies at the Large Hadron Collider
From heavy flavour jet identification to the discovery of the Higgs boson, machine learning algorithms have become an increasingly important tool for physics analysis and event reconstruction at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We present an innovative approach to particle and event reconstruction at the LHC, called end-to-end deep learning, that combines modern deep learning algorithms with low-level detector representation. Using two physics examples as references: quark and gluon discrimination and boosted top quark tagging, we demonstrate the performance of the end-to-end approach using CMS Open Data. We also offer insights into the role of various sub-detectors and describe how end-to-end techniques can be useful for event-level classification.
Speaker: Dr Emanuele Usai (Brown University)
• 25
Data Reconstruction Using Deep Neural Network for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers
Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are capable of recording images of charged particle tracks with breathtaking resolution. Such detailed information will allow LArTPCs to perform accurate particle identification and calorimetry, making it the detector of choice for many current and future neutrino experiments. However, analyzing such images can be challenging, requiring the development of many algorithms to identify and assemble features of the events in order to reconstruct neutrino interactions. In the recent years, we have been investigating a new approach using deep neural networks (DNNs), a modern solution to a pattern recognition for image-like data in the field of Computer Vision. A modern DNN can be applied for various types of problems such as data reconstruction tasks including interaction vertex finding, pixel clustering, and particle/topology type identification. We have developed a small inter-experiment collaboration to share generic software tools and algorithms development effort that can be applied to non-LArTPC imaging detectors. In this talk I will discuss the challenges of LArTPC data reconstruction, recent work and future plans for developing a full LArTPC data reconstruction chain using DNNs.
Speaker: Dr Kazuhiro Terao (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
• Parallel Session: Photodetectors
Conveners: Adam Para (Fermilab), Prof. Lindley Winslow (MIT), Lindley Winslow (UCLA), Zongfu Yu
• 26
The Snowball Chamber: Neutron-Induced Nucleation in Supercooled Water
The cloud and bubble chambers have been used historically for particle detection, capitalizing on supersaturation and superheating respectively. We now present the snowball chamber, which utilizes supercooled liquid. In our prototype, an incoming particle triggers crystallization of purified water. We demonstrate that water is supercooled for a significantly shorter time with respect to control data in the presence of AmBe and 252Cf neutron sources. A greater number of multiple nucleation sites are observed as well in neutron calibration data, as in a PICO-style bubble chamber. Similarly, gamma calibration data indicate a high degree of insensitivity to electron recoils inducing the phase transition, making this detector potentially ideal for dark matter searches seeking nuclear recoil alone. We will explore the possibility of using this new technology for WIMP and low-mass dark matter searches.
Speaker: Dr Matthew Szydagi (University of Albany)
• 27
Calorimeters for particle physics experiments with integration time of a few ns will substantially improve the capability of the experiment to resolve event pileup and to reject backgrounds. In this paper the time development of hadronic showers induced by 30 and 60 GeV positive pions and 120 GeV protons is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and beam tests with a prototype of a sampling steel-scintillator hadronic calorimeter. In the beam tests, scintillator signals induced by hadronic showers in steel are sampled with a period of 0.2 ns and precisely time-aligned in order to study the average signal waveform at various locations with respect to the beam particle impact. Simulations of the same setup are performed using the MARS15 code. Both simulation and test beam results suggest that energy deposition in steel calorimeters develop over a time shorter than 2 ns providing opportunity for ultra-fast calorimetry. Simulation results for an "ideal" calorimeter consisting exclusively of bulk tungsten or copper are presented to establish the lower limit of the signal integration window.
Speaker: Dmitri Denisov (Fermilab)
• 28
Ultrafast Radiation Hard Inorganic Scintillators for Future HEP Experiments
In high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear physics (NP) experiments, total absorption electromagnetic calorimeters (ECAL) made of inorganic crystals are known for their superb energy resolution and detection efficiency for photon and electron measurements. A crystal ECAL is thus the choice for those experiments where precision measurements of photons and electrons are crucial for their physics missions. Future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers require ultrafast inorganic crystal scintillators to achieve excellent timing resolution at a level of a few tens ps and to face the challenge of unprecedented event rate. Very fast inorganic crystals may also find application for Gigahertz hard X-ray imaging. We report recent progress in ultrafast and fast inorganic scintillators in HEP experiments, such as a thin LYSO crystal layer for fast timing for the CMS experiment upgrade at the HL-LHC, and undoped CsI and yttrium doped BaF2 crystals for the Mu2e experiment and its upgrade at Fermilab. Applications of ultrafast inorganic scintillators for Gigahertz hard X-ray imaging for the proposed Marie project at LANL will also be discussed.
Speaker: Dr Ren-yuan Zhu (Caltech)
• 29
Wavelength Shifting Liquid-Filled Capillaries for Optical Electromagnetic Calorimetry Applications
WLS Capillaries are being developed for optical calorimetry applications, and particularly for sampling calorimetry configurations. The WLS dyes can be tailored appropriately to provide wave shifting for various scintillation materials. Fabricated from radiation hard quartz, these elements are capable of withstanding high radiation doses and could be used broadly for EM applications in fixed target and colliding beam experiments. Structure fabrication, optical characteristics and measurements of the behavior of these structures under gamma irradiation in doses up to 150Mrad will be presented.
Speaker: Prof. Randy Ruchti (University of Notre Dame and National Science Foundation)
• Parallel Session: Quantum Sensors 553A

### 553A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 30
Optical clocks
Speaker: Ross Hutson (JILA)
• 31
Spin squeezing
Speaker: Graham Greeve (JILA)
• 32
Precision measurement with atomic clocks
Speaker: Prof. Shimon Kolkowitz (University of Wisconsin - Madison)
• 33
Quantum sensing with large 2D crystals of trapped ions
We trap and control 2D arrays of hundreds of ions and can measure nV/m and yN scale electric fields and forces. Our technique relies on coupling the motional and spin degrees of freedom, allowing us to sensitively measure the motion of the ion crystal by reading out the spin-state of the ions.
• Parallel Session: Superconducting Detectors
Conveners: Dr John Mates (University of Colorado, Boulder), Dr Peter Barry (ANL), Dr Sherry Cho (SLAC)
• 34
Superconducting Detectors for Precision Cosmology
Speaker: Dr Jason Austermann (NIST-Boulder / CU-Boulder)
• 35
SPT-3G: The Third-generation Camera on the South Pole Telescope
In January of 2017, the South Pole Telescope (SPT) was upgraded with the new SPT-3G camera to better observe the cosmic microwave background. The SPT-3G camera consists of 16,200 superconducting transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers, a factor of ten increase over the previously installed SPTpol camera. The bolometers are contained in 2710 tri-chroic pixels, with each pixel simultaneously measuring two orthogonal linear polarizations in frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. The upgrade to the SPT-3G camera also included the replacement of the secondary optics, the installation of a new larger receiver, and the deployment of the newly developed readout electronics. I will discuss the technology of SPT-3G and its current status.
Speaker: Dr Tyler Natoli (University of Chicago)
• 36
Development of Antenna-Coupled Lumped-Element KID for CMB Observations
Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KIDs) have become an attractive choice of detector in the sub-mm and mm observing community due to their innate frequency multiplexing capabilities and simple lithographic processes. These advantages make KIDs a viable option for the $O(500,000)$ detectors needed for the next generation CMB experiments, such as Cosmic Microwave Background - Stage 4 (CMB-S4) experiment. We developed a novel design of an antenna-coupled lumped element KID design optimized for CMB detection. Light is focused via alumina lenses to polarization-sensitive dual-slot antennae. A Nb/SiN/Nb microstrip line carries the signal to an Al/Nb KID. We present the design, fabrication process, and preliminary performance of a prototype array, and comment on the current status and future plans of this design.
Speaker: Ms Qing Yang Tang (University of Chicago)
• 37
Status of SuperSpec, the On-Chip Spectrometer
SuperSpec is a new technology for millimeter and submillimeter spectroscopy. It is an on-chip spectrometer being developed for multi-object, moderate resolution (R = ~300), large bandwidth survey spectroscopy of high-redshift galaxies for the 1 mm atmospheric window. SuperSpec targets the CO ladder in the redshift range of z = 0 to 4, the [CII] 158 um line from z = 5 to 9, and the [NII] 205 um line from z = 3.5-7. All together these lines offer complete redshift coverage from z = 0 to 9. SuperSpec employs a novel architecture in which detectors are coupled to a series of resonant filters along a single microwave feedline instead of using dispersive optics. This construction allows for the creation of a full spectrometer occupying only 20 cm squared of silicon, a reduction in size of several orders of magnitude when compared to standard grating spectrometers. This small profile enables the production of future multi-object spectroscopic instruments required as the millimeter-wave spectroscopy field matures. SuperSpec uses a lens-coupled antenna to deliver astrophysical radiation to a microstrip transmission line. The radiation then propagates down this transmission line where upon proximity coupled half wavelength microstrip resonators pick off specific frequencies of radiation. Careful tuning of the proximity of the resonators to the feedline dials in the desired resolving power of the SuperSpec filterbank by tuning the coupling quality factor. The half wavelength resonators are then in turn coupled to the inductive meander of superconducting kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs), which serve as the power detectors for the SuperSpec filterbank. Each SuperSpec filter bank contains hundreds of titanium nitride TiN KIDs and the natural multiplexibility of these detectors allow for readout of the large numbers of required detectors. The unique coupling scheme employed by SuperSpec allows for the creation of incredibly low volume (2.6 cubic microns), high responsivity, TiN KIDs. Since responsivity is proportional to the inverse of quasiparticle-occupied volume, this allows SuperSpec to reach the low NEPs required by moderate resolution spectroscopy to be photon limited from the best ground-based observing sites. We will present the latest results from SuperSpec devices. In particular, detector NEPs, measured filter bank efficiency (including transmission line losses), and spectral profiles. In addition, we will present our developments toward a SuperSpec on-sky demonstration instrument for deployment on the Large Millimeter Telescope.
Speaker: Mr Jordan Wheeler (University of Colorado Boulder)
• 6:00 PM
Reception Rotunda

• 38

### 553A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Monday, December 10
• 7:30 AM
Breakfast East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Plenary III
Convener: Dr Petra Merkel (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)
• 39
Electron Ion Collider
Speaker: Thomas Ulrich (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
• 40
Energy Frontier
Speaker: Prof. Meenakshi Narain (Brown University)
• 41
Triggering Challenges at the Energy Frontier
Speaker: Dr Isabel Ojalvo (Princeton)
• 42
FPGA-accelerated machine learning inference as a solution for particle physics computing challenges
Resources required for high-throughput computing in large-scale particle physics experiments face challenging demands both now and in the future. The growing exploration of machine learning algorithms in particle physics offers new solutions to simulation, reconstruction, and analysis. These new machine learning solutions often lead to increased parallelization and faster reconstructions times on dedicated hardware, here specifically Field Programmable Gate Arrays. We explore the possibility that applications of machine learning simultaneously also solve the increasing computing challenges. Employing machine learning acceleration as a web service, we demonstrate a heterogeneous compute solution for particle physics experiments that requires minimal modification to the current computing model. First results with Project Brainwave by Microsoft Azure, using the Resnet-50 image classification model as an example, demonstrate inference times of approximately 50 (10) milliseconds with our experimental physics software framework using Brainwave as a cloud (edge) service. We also adapt the image classifier, for example, physics applications using transfer learning: jet identification in the CMS experiment and event classification in the Nova neutrino experiment at Fermilab. Solutions explored here are potentially applicable sooner than may have been initially realized.
Speaker: Dr Mia Liu (fermilab)
• 10:00 AM
Coffee Break East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Parallel Session: Photodetectors
• 43
Superconducting single photon detection
Speaker: Karl Bergren
• 44
Capacitively Coupled Single Photon Detectors: From Classical to Quantum Mechanical Devices
In recent years, the development of Si CMOS quanta image sensors (QIS) has enabled room-temperature, non-avalanche photon counting in the visible spectrum regime by transferring a photoelectron to a tiny capacitor (C~400 aF), thereby inducing a readable voltage change on the order of 0.4 mV using correlated double sampling method. These non-avalanche single photon detectors (SPDs), based on capacitive coupling, greatly benefit from the CMOS scaling and may inspire new ways of envisioning/optimizing electronic-photonic integration on Si. This talk will focus on two aspects: (1) Extending the spectral response of QIS devices (based on classical capacitive coupling) to infrared and ultraviolet regime. Different schemes of spectral extension will be discussed, including hot-electron devices and GeSn nanodots integrated with Si QIS readout methods. (2) Leaping from classical to quantum mechanical capacitive coupling to minimize the timing jitter and maximize the bandwidth of the non-avalanche SPDs. In these quantum capacitive photodetectors, the absorption of a single photon changes the wave function of a single electron trapped in a quantum dot(QD), leading to a charge density redistribution nearby. This redistribution translates into a voltage signal through capacitive coupling between the QD and the measurement probe or a nanoscale MOS gate. Using InAs QD/AlAs barrier as a model system, the simulation shows that the output signal reaches ~4 mV per absorbed photon, promising for high-sensitivity, sub-ps single-photon detection. We will also discuss the fundamental limits and advantages of capacitively coupled photodetectors over avalanche photodetectors in single photon detection and photon counting.
Speaker: Prof. Jifeng Liu (Dartmouth College)
• 45
Status update on Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detectors – LAPPD
The Large Area Picosecond Photo-Detector (LAPPD™) is a microchannel plate (MCP) based planar geometry photodetector featuring single-photon sensitivity, semitransparent bi-alkali photocathode, millimeter spatial and picosecond temporal resolutions and an active area of to 350 square centimeters. The “baseline” LAPPD™ employs a borosilicate float glass hermetic package. Photoelectrons are amplified with a stacked chevron pair of “next generation” large area MCPs produced by applying resistive and emissive Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coatings to glass capillary array (GCA) substrates. Signals are collected on microstrip anodes applied to the bottom plate. We report performance results achieved for fully functional sealed LAPPDs™. These results include electron gains of up to 107, low dark noise rates (15-30 Hz/cm2), single photoelectron (PE) timing resolution of 64 picoseconds RMS (electronics limited), and single photoelectron spatial resolution along and across strips of 2.4 mm and 0.8 mm RMS respectively and high (up to 25%) QE uniform bi-alkali photocathodes. While not fully optimized, these tiles are usable for applications by early adopters. Optimized LAPPDs can be employed in neutrino experiments (e.g. ANNIE, WATCHMAN, DUNE), particle collider experiments (e.g. EIC), neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments (e.g. THEIA), medical and nuclear non-proliferation applications. We will also discuss future prospects of the project and new developments in LAPPDs.
Speaker: Dr Alexey Lyashenko (Incom Inc.)
• 46
Development of fast-timing MCP-PMT/LAPPD for particle identification
Particle IDentification (PID) is fundamental to nuclear and particle physics experiments. Fast-timing MCP-PMTs are ideal candidate for PID sensors if the price is affordable. We report detailed design, fabrication and characterization of Argonne 6 × 6 cm$^2$ fast timing photodetectors based on next-generation microchannel plates (MCP). The whole assembly is made of low-cost borosilicate glass materials and hermetically sealed with a bialkali photocathode in a vacuum. The flexible photodetector design provides the potential of modifying individual components as well as the entire configuration to fit for different applications. Recently, low-cost, large area pico-second photodetector (LAPPD$^{TM}$), which shares the similar design as Argonne MCP-PMT was successfully commercialized by our collaborator Incom, Inc. Efforts were devoted to modify the standard configuration of the LAPPD$^{TM}$, and to validate the performance on Argonne 6 × 6 cm$^2$ MCP-PMTs. Experiment results show great improvement of the detector’s timing resolution and magnetic field tolerance, providing strong potential for PID applications. Results on high voltage, magnetic field strength and angle dependence will be presented in detail.
Speaker: Dr Junqi Xie (ANL)
• Parallel Session: Silicon Detectors 552A

### 552A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 47
Pixel Sensors with Engineered Substates for Time and Space Resolution and Radiation Hardness
Future Particle Physics experiments will require detectors with increasingly precise spatial and time resolution. These issues are currently being addressed separately by Low Gain Avalanche Diodes (LGADs) and hybrid or CMOS pixel detectors. We will discuss how engineered silicon substrates, with doped epitaxial layers combined with AC coupling of the anode implant, can be used to produce radiation hard LGADs with high fill factor and arbitrary pixel geometries. We will also describe how small pixels enabled by 3D sensor/electronics integration can be utilized for both fast timing and event topology discrimination in thick or thin silicon detectors.
Speaker: Dr Ron Lipton (Fermilab)
• 48
3D sensors for charged particle tracking
Speaker: Julie Segal (Stanford)
• 49
Monolithic sensors for high energy physics
Speaker: Petra Riedler
• 50
Timing with Solid State Detectors
Speaker: Bruce Schumm
• Parallel Session: Superconducting Detectors
Conveners: Dr John Mates (University of Colorado, Boulder), Dr Peter Barry (ANL), Dr Sherry Cho (SLAC)
• 51
Towards the Next Generation of Frequency-Multiplexed TES Readout
TES bolometers have emerged as a very successful technology in part thanks to their exquisite sensitivity and ability to be fabricated in large monolithic arrays. O(10^6) TES bolometers are planned to be deployed in the 2020s for the cosmic microwave experiment CMB-S4, which will require advances in readout technology. Frequency-multiplexed (fMux) readout has been demonstrated to great success with an O(10) multiplexing factor, and is currently also operating successfully at a multiplexing factor of 68 on SPT-3G. We are developing a series of improvements that will greatly simplify the fMux readout architecture, improve performance, and increase the multiplexing factor. I will present results on several advances that include lossless bias generation and moving of the 4K SQUID amplifier to the sub-Kelvin stage.
Speaker: Dr Tijmen de Haan (LBNL)
• 52
Microwave SQUID multiplexing for high-energy physics experiments
Speaker: Doug Bennett (NIST)
• 53
Highly-multiplexed microwave SQUID readout using the SLAC Microresonator Radio Frequency (SMuRF) Electronics for Future CMB and Sub-millimeter Surveys
Speaker: Dr Shawn Henderson (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)
• 54
Microwave-multiplexed TES (uMUX) and Kinetic Inductance Detectors (KID) continue to have success in deployed instruments, and are being built in larger and larger arrays. Corresponding improvements in room temperature readout electronics are needed to keep pace with increasing multiplexing factors, as well as manage the power requirements and system complexity associated with the ever increasing total detector count in future instruments. In this talk, I review early work evaluating the commercially-available Xilinx RFSoC development board for use in uMUX/KID readout. This system integrates RF synthesis and sampling, an FPGA for signal processing, and a CPU for housekeeping tasks, all into a single chip. This results in significantly lower electrical power requirements than other solutions, which has the potential to reduce system complexity in ground-based installation, and significantly increases the potential for (sub-)orbital and space use.
Speaker: Dr Sean Bryan (Arizona State University)
• 12:30 PM
Lunch East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

• QIS Discussion
Convener: Prof. Meenakshi Narain (Brown University)
• 55
QIS Discussion
Speakers: Dr Helmut Marsiske (Office of High Energy Physics, U.S. Department of Energy), Prof. Randal Ruchti (National Science Foundation)
• Parallel Session: Computing & Machine Learning
Conveners: Dr Oliver Gutsche (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), Sergei Gleyzer (University of Florida), Taritree Wongjirad (MIT)
• 56
Tracker layout and track reconstruction synergy in collider environment with high pileup
Leading planned or considered hadron colliders are expected to produce data in collisions with average number of simultaneous interactions per beam bunch crossing of several hundred. These include both the high luminosity LHC upgrade currently in preparation and the possible high energy LHC upgrade as well as a future circular collider FCC-hh. Execution of charged particle track reconstruction for the general purpose detectors at these colliders is expected to be at least comparable in cost to the construction and operation of the tracking detectors. We show that the sensitive layer layout in the design of a tracking detector can play a vital role to reduce complexity and cost of the charged particle track reconstruction. Our case study is based on realistic simulation of a tracking detector similar to that of CMS to be operated in HL-LHC. We show that a typical layout with roughly equidistant layer separation is inferior to that with grouped layers with a smaller distance within a group, which allows for more performant track segment reconstruction. This synergy between the hardware and software choice can allow for a reduction of the total cost of a future collider experiment.
Speaker: Vyacheslav Krutelyov
• 57
Evaluation and Development of Algorithms and Techniques for Streaming Detector Readout
Experiments in Nuclear Physics (NP) have unique requirements on their data acquisition and computing due to the multiple channel and multi-dimensional challenges in their measurements. While there have been remarkable advances in microelectronics capabilities, computing, and data science over the last decade, the research model of NP has not changed for many decades. With the start of the 12 GeV program and the ongoing design of the Electron-Ion Collider in mind, we would like find out if the technological advantages of the last decade can fundamentally improve the research model of NP. We propose an exploratory study on three levels: 1. Rethinking the way measurements are compared to theory and would like to examine the capabilities of an event level analysis taking the multi-dimensional correlations in the data fully into account. 2. Rethinking the way experimental data are handled and would like to identify ways to speed up the analysis of the data in the context of an event level analysis. 3. Rethinking the way we read detectors and assemble the detector data into events and would like to investigate the capabilities of streaming readout in view of an event level analysis. Specifically, we prototype components of streaming readout and explore appropriate associated data models. The data model also must be appropriate for processing-intensive analyses of multi-dimensional correlations in NP data. Our development is done in such a way as to a) evaluate and quantify the possibilities and limitations of this approach with current hardware/software and identify where further developments are needed b) produce a prototype tool kit of hardware and software solutions that could be applied separately and in the short-term at Jefferson Lab and elsewhere.
Speaker: Dr Markus Diefenthaler (Jefferson Lab)
• 58
DNN based algorithm for CMS Level-1 muon reconstruction
In order to preserve its ability to do physics at the electroweak scale in the HL-LHC era, CMS experiment has to maintain low trigger thresholds that are robust against high intensity and large number of interactions per bunch crossing expected at the HL-LHC. Specifically, the muon trigger transverse momentum (pT) thresholds currently used cannot be maintained at the HL-LHC without improving the reconstruction algorithms and incorporating additional information into the L1 muon reconstruction. The biggest challenge in L1 muon reconstruction is the ability to have highly accurate determination of the muon pT in order to prevent lower transverse momentum muons, below the desired threshold, from saturating the trigger rate. We present studies of an alternative novel technique to improve L1 muon momentum resolution using advanced Machine Learning algorithms executed in FPGAs. The presentation will include simulation based studies to quantify performance improvements and bottlenecks of such a technique as well as a preliminary implementation of firmware with the goal of estimating required resources and latency.
Speaker: Jia Low (University of Florida)
• 59
Deep Machine Learning on FPGAs for L1 trigger and Data Acquisition
Machine learning is becoming ubiquitous across HEP. There is great potential to improve trigger and DAQ performances with it. However, the exploration of such techniques within the field in low latency/power FPGAs has just begun. We present HLS4ML, a user-friendly software, based on High-Level Synthesis (HLS), designed to deploy network architectures on FPGAs. As a case study, we use HLS4ML for boosted-jet tagging with deep networks at the LHC. We map out resource usage and latency versus network architectures, to identify the typical problem complexity that HLS4ML could deal with. We discuss possible applications in current and future HEP experiments.
Speaker: Dylan Rankin (MIT)
• Parallel Session: Noble Element Detectors
Convener: David Moore (Stanford University)
• 60
Q-Pix: Pixel-scale Signal Capture For Kiloton Liquid Argon TPC Detectors: Charge-Quantized Waveform Capture, Free-running Clocks, Dynamic Networks
We describe a novel ionization signal capture and waveform digitization scheme for kiloton-scale liquid argon Time Projection Chamber (TPC) detectors. The scheme is based on a pixel-scale self-triggering ‘charge integrate/reset’ block, free-running local clocks and dynamically established data networks. The scheme facilitates detailed capture of waveforms of arbitrary complexity from a sequence of varying time intervals, each of which corresponds to a fixed charge integral. An absolute charge auto-calibration process based on intrinsic 39Ar decay current is a major benefit. A flat electronic architecture with self-guided network generation provides very high resilience against single-point failure. The goal is optimized discovery potential. Much might be at stake.
Speaker: Dr Yuan Mei (LBNL)
• 61
Xenon doping of Liquid Argon for astroparticle detectors
Liquid Argon (LAr) has a widespread use in astroparticle experiments dedicated to neutrino studies and Dark Matter searches. LAr scintillation light is produced in the far Ultraviolet (128 nm), posing technical challenges for collection and detection. While there are available multiple technologies for this task, already tested and well functioning, new solutions are being searched for. An interesting possibility is to dope LAr with Xenon. Ar excitation can be passed to Xenon, which also emits light at larger $\lambda$=175 nm. Xe photons can be detected more easily than Argon ones, and they bring other advantages, like larger Rayleigh scattering length, and increased yield. These characteristics can significantly impact detection capabilities for large volume LAr-TPC neutrino experiments. My talk will review present knowledge; recent tests, including those performed at CERN in the framework of the CERN Neutrino Platform, and an outlook for future use in the DUNE far detectors.
Speaker: Andrea Zani (CERN)
• 62
Results of high voltage breakdown studies in liquid argon and xenon with XeBrA
As noble liquid time projection chambers grow in size, their high voltage requirements increase, and detailed, reproducible studies of dielectric breakdown and the onset of electroluminescence are needed to inform their design. The Xenon Breakdown Apparatus (XeBrA) is a 5-liter cryogenic chamber at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory built to characterize high voltage behavior of liquid xenon and liquid argon. This talk will present the motivation and results from XeBrA that will serve to inform the future of noble liquid detector engineering.
Speaker: Dr Lucie Tvrznikova (Yale University / LBNL)
• 63
Ultra-low Energy Calibration of the LUX detector with pulsed D-D neutrons and 127Xe Electron Capture Events
The LUX dark matter experiment has measured the nuclear recoil charge and light yields in LXe down to 0.7 keVnr and 1.1 keVnr, respectively, in situ using a D-D neutron calibration source. Improvements in the D-D calibration have been possible by incorporating pulsing technique with narrow pulses (20 us / 250 Hz). This technique allows the suppression of accidental backgrounds in D-D neutron data and also provides increased sensitivity for the lower energy NR calibrations. I will report the improved NR absolute Qy and Ly measurements using the pulsed D-D calibration technique performed in situ in the LUX detector. I also present an absolute calibration of electron recoil (ER) charge yield using $^{127}$Xe electron capture events at energies down to the N-shell 186 eVee. These in situ energy calibrations, using D-D neutron and $^{127}$Xe sources, represent the lowest energy NR and ER that have been explored in liquid Xe and are accompanied by a significant improvement in calibration uncertainty.
Speaker: Mr Dongqing Huang (Brown University)
• 64
The Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST) Version 2.0
The latest release of the Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST) is presented here. Noble element target media have become common in rare event searches, and an accurate comparison model is critical for understanding and predicting signals and unwanted backgrounds. Like its predecessors, NESTv2.0 is a simulation tool written in C++ and is based heavily on experimental data, taking into account most of the existing ionization and scintillation data for solid, liquid, and gaseous xenon. Due to the large amount of precise data for liquid xenon, most theoretical models in NEST have been replaced with simple, well-behaved, empirical formulas, such as sigmoids and power laws. NESTv2.0 also uses an empirical, non-binomial, recombination fluctuations model. In addition, NESTv2.0 simulates S1 and S2 scintillation signals with correct energy resolutions in dual-phase xenon time-projection chambers, and this is done without using an external package. While NEST can be used with GEANT, NESTv2.0 is fully capable of operating as a stand-alone command-line tool.
Speaker: Gregory Rischbieter (SUNY Albany)
• Parallel Session: Quantum Sensors 553A

### 553A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
Conveners: Jason Hogan (Stanford University), Dr Salman Habib (Argonne National Laboratory)
• 65
Resonant absorption of bosonic dark matter in molecules, etc.
Speaker: Prof. Asimina Arvanitaki (Perimeter Institute)
• 66
Quantum pattern recognition for HEP
Speaker: Ms Lucy Linder (Lawrence Berkeley National Lab)
• 67
Quantum system engineering, axion detection
Speaker: Alexander Sushkov (Boston University)
• 68
Quantum sensors for light dark matter
Speaker: Prof. Kent Irwin (Stanford University and SLAC)
• Parallel Session: Silicon Detectors 552A

### 552A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 69
Lithium doped Silicon Detectors for Particle Astrophysics
Speaker: Kerstin Perez (MIT)
• 70
Reinventing amorphous selenium avalanche photodetector for picosecond time-of-flight applications
Speaker: Amir Goldan
• 71
Silicon devices with single charge resolution
Speaker: Pitam Mitra
• 72
Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on Bulk Germanium
Speaker: Dr Christopher Leitz (MIT Lincoln Laboratory)
• 3:30 PM
Coffee Break East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Plenary IV
Convener: Maurice Garcia-Sciveres (LBNL)
• 73
Speaker: Vetri Velan (University of California, Berkeley)
• 74
Speaker: Carolyn Gee (University of California, Santa Cruz)
• 75
• 76
Speaker: Mr Dylan Temples (Northwestern University)
• 77
Speaker: Qing Xia (Yale)
• 7:00 PM
Conference Dinner Alumnae Hall (Brown University)

### Alumnae Hall

#### Brown University

Buses will pick up at the RICC between 6:30 and 7pm to go to the banquet location.
Buses will depart from the banquet location at 9:30pm and drop guests off at downtown hotels.

• Tuesday, December 11
• 7:30 AM
Breakfast East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Parallel Session: Computing & Machine Learning 553B

### 553B

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
Conveners: Dr Oliver Gutsche (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory), Sergei Gleyzer (University of Florida), Taritree Wongjirad (MIT)
• 78
Submanifold Sparse Convolutional Networks for Sparse, Locally Dense Particle Image Analysis
From a breakthrough revolution, Deep Learning (DL) has grown to become a de-facto standard technique in the fields of artificial intelligence and computer vision. In particular Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are shown to be a powerful DL technique to extract physics features from images: They were successfully applied to the data reconstruction and analysis of Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPC), a class of particle imaging detectors which records the trajectory of charged particles in either 2D or 3D volumetric data with a breathtaking resolution (~3mm/pixel). The CNNs apply a chain of matrix multiplications and additions, and can be massively parallelized on many-core systems such as GPUs when applied on image data analysis. Yet a unique feature of LArTPC data challenges traditional CNN algorithms: it is locally dense (no gap in a particle trajectory) but generally sparse. A typical 2D LArTPC image has less than 1% of pixels occupied with non-zero value. This makes standard CNNs with dense matrix operations very inefficient. Submanifold sparse convolutional networks (SSCN) have been proposed to address exactly this class of sparsity challenges by keeping the same level of sparsity throughout the network. We demonstrate their strong performance on some of our data reconstruction tasks which include 3D semantic segmentation for particle identifications at the pixel-level. They outperform a standard, dense CNNs in an accuracy metric with substantially less computations. SSCN can address the problem of compute resource scalability for 3D ML-based data reconstruction chain R&D for LArTPC detectors.
Speaker: Laura Domine
• 79
A Framework for Integrated Research Software Training in HEP
Speaker: Prof. Sudhir Malik (University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez)
• 80
E2E applications to boosted topologies
Speaker: Bjorn Burkle
• Parallel Session: Noble Element Detectors 553A

### 553A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 81
Internal Calibration Source Injection Hardware for LZ
Self-shielding in ton-scale liquid noble detectors presents a unique challenge for calibrating the detector's innermost volume. Calibration isotopes must be injected directly into the active material to reach the central volume, and they must either decay away with a short half life or be purified out. I present a summary of the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) calibration hardware effort at UMass Amherst in which we are refining techniques for the injection and removal of precise activities of various calibration isotopes. This technology is generalizable to the liquid noble field as a whole.
Speaker: Christopher Nedlik (University of Massachusetts)
• 82
Noble liquid detector R&D with the LZ System Test platform at SLAC
LZ is a next generation dark matter search experiment designed to significantly extend our sensitivity to WIMP dark matter. At the core of the LZ design is a dual-phase Xe time projection chamber (TPC) with 7 tonnes of active volume. The LZ System Test platform has been constructed at SLAC and consists of three mid-size xenon detectors that, together, test and validate the performance of critical LZ subsystems at scales approaching or comparable to the LZ design. An overview of the test platform will be given, followed by recent results relevant to many noble liquid detectors.
Speaker: Kelly Stifter (Stanford University)
• 83
Recent Developments in Wavelength-Shifting Coatings for Noble Element Detectors
Charged particles generate copious amounts of scintillation light in the far ultraviolet when passing through the noble elements. Directly detecting these deep UV photons is challenging, and a common technique is to employ photofluorescent compounds as wavelength-shifters to convert this scintillation light into to the visible. A number of challenges continue to present themselves in the ongoing efforts to optimize designs in this detector paradigm, particularly in the realm of argon-based detectors. From new measurements to creative detector designs, I will summarize a variety of recent findings and innovative approaches in this area of active research.
Speaker: Prof. Denver Whittington (Syracuse University)
• 84
Summary of the R&D Results from Recent Analyses of LUX Xe TPC Data
LUX operated at Sanford Lab from 2013 to 2016 with a primary mission to search for dark matter using a dual-phase xenon TPC with a 250 kg target mass. It produced world-leading search results. Its data continues to be used for other rare event physics searches and to improve our understanding of the detailed behavior of Xe TPCs. Ongoing LUX analyses have significantly furthered the understanding of signal yields and signal detection in xenon and also identified competing radiogenic backgrounds. In this talk, I will detail recent results including pulse shape discrimination, results from the many new calibration techniques that were successfully exploited, and also summarize the improvements in the understanding of radiogenic backgrounds and efforts to extend the background model. These LUX analyses are being also being used to inform the upcoming LUX-ZEPLIN experiment.
Speaker: William Taylor (Brown University)
• 85
Photosensors for the DarkSide-20k Experiment
DarkSide-20k is a proposed 30-tonne fiducial mass liquid argon TPC that will perform an instrumental background-free search for WIMP dark matter. The TPC will be outfitted with 200,000 silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) grouped into 8,280 single-channel, 25 cm$^2$ photosensors that are sensitive to single photoelectrons. We will present the cryogenic performance of the first DarkSide Motherboard, a 625 cm$^2$ module that houses 25 photosensors and their associated low-noise electronics. We will also discuss the strategy for producing the full complement of DarkSide photosensors, including the transition of wafer production to a commercial foundry and the construction of a dedicated, low-background packaging facility.
Speaker: Graham Giovanetti (Princeton University)
• Parallel Session: Silicon Detectors 552A

### 552A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 86
Back-illuminated imagers with ns time resolution
Speaker: Andrei Nomerotski (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
• 87
High Density Interconnect Technology aka 3D Integration for Radiation Detection Circuits and Systems
High Density Interconnect Technology aka 3D Integration Technology is a transformative enabler for new forms of detectors integrating sensors with the processing electronics in pseudo-monolithic structures. The processing power, thanks to the integration of consecutive layers of active components and effectively tens of layers of routing metallization, allow building self-supporting, edgeless and robust detectors that permit extraction of higher level information directly on the detector through enabling inter-channel(inter-pixel) communication and in-hardware implementation of advanced algorithms. 3D integration technology, after a bit more than a decade of infancy, paved its way to the largest mainstream foundries, where giants, like TSMC or GlobalFoundries offer real 3D integration technology with wafer stacking and through silicon vias on process nodes 28 nm and below now. Of course, costs are high and only top and largest volume commercial producers can afford these services. Fortunately, in the most recent years, 3D integration technologies, initially developed in the industrial context, gained strong interests in National Laboratories, where the ingredients have been either licensed or developed in-house to be able to fulfil the requirements of federally funded detector research and development. Leveraging of these capabilities is attractive to the Department of Energy programs, for offices of High Energy Physics and Basic Energy Sciences, and efforts in this direction are underway with orientation on demonstrating strategic capabilities. Looking further into the future, i.e. into the 10nm integrations scales, it is believed that with 3D integration technologies with emphasis of heterogenous integration, it would be possible to build such devices that raw information will be transformed into less bandwidth occupying data, carrying only useful message for a user. The special attention is to be given to interconnection between sensing nodes, digitization and processing on the back of the focal plane, including data reduction, edge computing, information extraction, use of techniques, like neural network and neuromorphic algorithms of increased complexities. The objective is going from simple algorithms of increased resolution, correction of detection imperfection, extracting of secondary level information direction of arrival, distance to topological and abstract object recognitions and artificial intelligence interfaces. Introduction to the 3D capabilities, undertaken efforts , collaborations and the directions here-mentioned will be given in the presentation.
Speaker: Dr Gregory Deptuch (FERMILAB PPD/EED)
• 88
Low Gain Avalanche Detector development at BNL
Low-Gain Avalanche Diodes are gathering interest in the High-Energy Physics community thanks to their fast-timing and radiation-hardness properties, which are planned to be exploited, for example, in timing detectors for the upgrades of the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the High Luminosity LHC. This new technology has also raised interest for its possible application for photon detection in medical physics, imaging and photon science. The main characteristic of this type of device is a thin and highly-doped layer that provides internal and moderate gain, in the order of 10-20, that enhances the signal amplitude. A thin substrate of a few tens of microns allow fast carrier collection. We will detail on the fabrication technology, specifically developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory for the detection of minimum ionizing particles. The static electrical characterization and the gain measurements on prototypes will be reported too. Some devices have been irradiated with proton beam at the Tandem Van de Graaff facility at BNL, and post-irradiation studies will be reported.
Speaker: Dr Gabriele Giacomini (Brookhaven National Lab)
• 89
Technical Choices and Challenges of LSST Readout System
Speaker: Sven Herrmann (BNL)
• 90
Avalanche photodiode (APD) and high dynamic range (HDR) imaging
• 10:00 AM
Coffee Break East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Parallel Session: Noble Element Detectors 553A

### 553A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 91
Prototyping the world's largest liquid argon TPC: ProtoDUNE Single Phase
Neutrino physics are a rich field of research with many unanswered questions. To continue exploring this field, liquid argon TPCs (LArTPC) are becoming increasingly popular because of their many advantages over other detector technologies. One of the largest future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, DUNE, aims to build 4 x 10kt LArTPCs as its far detector. ProtoDUNE-SP is the single-phase DUNE Far Detector prototype that was built between Dec. 2015 and Jun. 2018 and is currently operating at the CERN Neutrino Platform. This experiment is a crucial part of the effort towards the construction of the first DUNE far detector module and is a significant experiment in its own right. With a total liquid argon mass of 0.77 kt, it is the largest monolithic single-phase LArTPC detector built to date. It has currently finished cumulating data from a new dedicated charged-particle test beamline at CERN and will continue running with cosmic data. Through the journey of the construction and activation of ProtoDUNE SP, we will explore how DUNE's goals can be reached.
Speaker: Dr Flor de Maria Blaszczyk (Boston University)
• 92
High-Pressure Gas TPC for DUNE Near Detector
The DUNE near detector will consist of several components, one of which is the high-pressure gaseous argon TPC (HPgTPC). As a promising neutrino detection technology, it is well-suited to improve the neutrino-nucleus systematic uncertainties for the neutrino oscillation measurements. In this talk, an overview of the on-going HPgTPC R&D efforts in the U.K. and U.S. will be presented.
Speaker: Tanaz Mohayai (Fermilab)
• 93
ArgonCube: Novel R&D for LArTPCs
ArgonCube is an international collaboration for LArTPC Detector R&D, with a focus on the technical needs for the DUNE physics program. The ArgonCube R&D program is currently aimed on detector modularization, pixelated charge readout, and innovative light detection for large LArTPCs. Modularization addresses a number of technical issues for large LArTPCs, including drift field stability, stored energy, and liquid argon purity. Pixelated readout has proven to deliver true 3D imaging of particle interactions, removing the ambiguities present for existing readout techniques. New approaches to light detection enable increased photon yields and provide improved localization of scintillation signals. The ArgonCube design has been adopted as the baseline LAr system for the DUNE Near Detector. The ArgonCube 2x2 Demonstrator, a 3-ton-active modular pixelated LArTPC, will serve as an engineering prototype for DUNE. It is currently under construction and will operate in the Fermilab NuMI neutrino beam in 2020.
Speaker: Dr Dan Dwyer (LBNL)
• 94
New Developments in Micropower ASICs for 3D pixelated charge readout of liquid argon Time Projection Chambers
True three-dimensional ionization charge detection and readout of liquid argon time projection chambers has recently been demonstrated. To achieve this, a 32-channel custom readout ASIC, LArPix, was used to read out a custom pixelated TPC anode immersed in liquid argon. This talk will discuss design and architectural details that enabled low-noise, low-power digitization of the charge signal. In addition, potential follow-on developments and improvements (e.g. increased number of channels, increased ADC dynamic range) will be discussed.
Speaker: Dr Carl Grace (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)
• 95
Cold Electronics R&D
Operating the wire readout electronics for Liquid Nobel TPCs at cryogenic temperatures has a number of advantages. As demonstrated by the BNL group, the front-end amplifier noise is reduced both by the elimination of extra capacitance due to cables and by the improved transistor noise performance at low temperature. Digitizing and digital multiplexing in the cold is also advantageous in that it reduces the number of cryostat penetrations needed and leads to an overall simpler system. Nonetheless, cryogenic electronics presents a number of challenges including achieving the lifetime and reliability needed for long-term experiments and in some applications, the strict radiopurity requirements. Several groups are pursuing the development a full cryogenic readout chain. Among these, the SLAC ASIC group has recently submitted for the fabrication the mixed-signal "CRYO" ASIC, which combines the three functions of amplification, digitization and multiplexing onto a single ASIC. In this talk, I will describe the status of the global cold electronics R&D effort, including the design, planned testing and application of the CRYO ASIC in the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) and the next phase of the Enriched Xenon Observatory (nEXO).
Speaker: Dr Mark Convery (SLAC)
• Parallel Session: Photodetectors 553B

### 553B

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
Conveners: Adam Para (Fermilab), Prof. Lindley Winslow (MIT), Lindley Winslow (UCLA), Zongfu You
• 96
Nanocomposite Materials for Microchannel Plate Detectors
Precisely controlled metal-metal oxide nanocomposite layers prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD) exhibit material properties that can be tuned over a broad range by adjusting the metal content such as band gap, absorption coefficient, resistivity, and electrochemical corrosion resistance. Consequently, these metal-metal oxide nanocomposites are well suited especially as a resistive layers for microchannel plates (MCPs) functionalization. For resistive layers in MCPs, both resistance stability with respect to applied potential and the thermal coefficient of resistance (TCR) are the critical materials property because it dictates the range of allowable operating voltage and temperatures for devices (e.g. photon, neutron, or particle detectors) that incorporate the MCP for electron amplification. The ability to control the TCR will enable new applications such as cryogenic detectors or detectors that must endure large temperature changes during operation. To address this need, we have synthesized a variety of ALD metal-metal oxide nanocomposite layers by combining different metals (W, Mo, Ta, Nb, and Re) and metal oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2, TiO2, Ta2O5, Nb2O5, and HfO2). We studied the electrical transport properties of these ALD films and focused on their temperature dependence in order to extract the TCR. In all cases, the TCR is negative, so that the resistance drops with increasing temperature as expected for a semiconducting material. In addition, the magnitude of the TCR increases with the film resistivity, and depends on both the metal and the metal oxide components of the composite. This presentation will expound on these findings and explain the implications for MCP detectors.
Speaker: Dr Anil Mane (Argonne National Lab)
• 97
Development of the Air-Transfer Process for the `Gen-II' LAPPD
The Gen-II LAPPD is a 20$\times$20 cm$^2$ MCP-based photo-detector that has a monolithic ceramic detector base with an anode capacitively coupled through a thin metal film to an application-specific readout pattern outside of the vacuum package. We discuss the development of the *air-transfer* process for the Gen-II LAPPD assembly. In this process a hermetic seal between the top window with pre-deposited antimony layer and the detector base is made during the detector bake-out. Photo-cathode synthesis is then performed by introducing alkali metals into the sealed detector package through a small sealable vacuum port. We have demonstrated the feasibility of several critical process steps including demonstration of cesium transport from a source outside of the detector package to the entire surface of the detector window in the presence of two full-size 20$\times$20 cm$^2$ MCPs inside the detector.
Speaker: Andrey Elagin (University of Chicago)
• 98
3D digital SiPM development for large area photodetectors
Over the last years, we have worked on the concept of 3D digital SiPM and demonstrated critical steps towards there realization from CMOS design to fabrication process. We will review the main building blocks of the 3D digital SiPM, the development we have led and the forecasted and needed R&D. This will include CMOS design for arrays of ultra-low single photon timing resolution time-to-digital converter for time-of-flight experiments and for low power large area photodetector for noble liquid low background experiments (liquid xenon and argon). We will make the case that 3D digital SiPM has the potential to have superior performance over the 2D digital SiPM and its analog counterpart. We will discuss how this next generation detector can be disruptive in the field of radiation instrumentation and how it opens the door to new sciences.
Speaker: Prof. Serge A. Charlebois (Université de Sherbrooke)
• 99
On the Development of High Efficiency Si-Based Single VUV Photon Detector
Aside from a large variety of direct applications, Silicon-based photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are also replacing photo-multiplier tubes in the net generation of liquid noble experiments (Argon and Xenon). However, current photo-detection efficiency (PDE) values, at peak emission wavelengths for xenon (175 nm) and argon (128 nm), range between 5% and 25%, requiring in some instance the use of a wavelength shifting material. In this talk, we will discuss the ongoing effort to use molecular implantation on 3-Dimensionally integrated digital SiPMs (3DSiPMs) to boost the device PDE in the VUV regime to values >35%. Furthermore, we will discuss the dedicated effort in the selection of materials with optimal optical properties in the VUV range, which is fundamental for the construction of the ultimate single VUV photon sensitive photo-detector.
Speaker: Dr Pietro Giampa (TRIUMF)
• Parallel Session: Quantum Sensors 552A

### 552A

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• 100
Nano-mechanical resonators coupled to atoms
Speaker: Prof. Andrew Geraci (Northwestern University)
• 101
New Directions for Fundamental Physics Tests with Macroscopic Scale Atom Interferometers
Light-pulse atom interferometry—which uses optical pulses to split, recombine, and interfere quantum mechanical atomic matter waves—is a sensitive method for measuring inertial and gravitational forces, making it a valuable tool for a broad set of applications and fundamental physics tests. The sensitivity of an atom interferometer scales with its enclosed spacetime area, which is proportional to the product of the maximum spatial separation reached between the two interferometer paths and the interferometer duration. Motivated by this scaling, atom interferometers have been realized that cover macroscopic scales in space (tens of centimeters) and in time (multiple seconds). In this talk, I will discuss new experimental efforts to use macroscopic scale atom interferometers for fundamental physics tests. These include improved searches for new particles beyond the standard model by looking for deviations from the gravitational inverse square law and an improved measurement of Newton’s gravitational constant. Additionally, I will discuss work that the Matter wave Atomic Gradiometer Interferometric Sensor (MAGIS) collaboration is pursuing toward a large scale atom interferometer to search for ultralight dark matter and to detect gravitational waves in a frequency band complementary to those addressed by laser interferometers.
Speaker: Prof. Tim Kovachy Kovachy (Northwestern University)
• 102
Measurement of the fine structure constant as test of the Standard Model
Measurements of the fine-structure constant α require methods from across subfields and are thus powerful tests of the consistency of theory and experiment in physics. Using the recoil frequency of cesium-133 atoms in a matter-wave interferometer, we recorded the most accurate measurement of the fine-structure constant to date: α = 1/137.035999046(27) at 0.20 parts per billion accuracy. Comparison with Penning trap measurements of the electron gyromagnetic anomaly ge − 2 via the Standard Model of particle physics is now limited by the uncertainty in ge − 2; a 2.5σ tension may be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model that warrants further investigation. In particular, we will discuss implications for dark-sector candidates such as dark photons.
Speaker: Prof. Holger Mueller (UC Berkeley)
• 103
ACME + precision measurements with polyatomic molecules
Speaker: Nick Hutzler (Caltech)
• 12:30 PM
Lunch East Prefunction

### East Prefunction

#### Rhode Island Convention Center

One Sabin Street Providence, Rhode Island 02903 United States
• Plenary V
Convener: Ian Shipsey (Oxford)
• 104
Speaker: Ian Shipsey (Oxford)
• 105
Photodetectors
• 106
Noble Element Detectors
Speakers: Prof. Sowjanya Gollapinni (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), Sowjanya Gollapinni
• 107
Silicon Detectors
Speakers: Alvaro Chavarria, Julia Thom-Levy (Cornell University)
• 108
Quantum Sensors
Speaker: Dr David Hume (NIST)
• 109
Computing & Machine Learning